Shelter is listed as a physiological need according to the famous Maslow. We all need it to survive. Sometimes the situation is grave, other times; it’s just a matter of comfort. Listed here are four different types of shelters and what they are used for.
1. Bomb shelters:
Bomb shelters are a form of civil defence designed to protect against the effects of a bomb. Shelters differ depending on the nature of the attack and the strength of the bombs being used. Air-raid shelters were built to protect against old bomber planes that would drop bombs over large areas, commonly used in WWII. Fallout shelters were designed to survive nuclear war. Thick walls were built out of materials that could block out the radiation resulting from a nuclear explosion. These were commonly used during the Cold War. Blast shelters and bunkers are more commonly associated with military use. Bomb shelters really do have the ability to protect citizens. The more shelters there are in a war torn country, the more likely the population will be to survive.
2. Refugee shelters:
Refugees are people who are temporarily homeless thanks to war or natural disaster. When found, these displaced people are brought to stay in the most minimal type of structure where they can sleep and eat until they find somewhere else to go. It is a transitional accommodation of a very primitive nature. In the past, refugee shelters have been made of poor material and haven’t usually lasted more than a year. Nowadays, architects and foreign aid committees around the world are working to improve that. There are however, risks and costs involved in transporting these shelters into areas with damaged infrastructure. A lot of disaster response groups are also encouraging victims to build their own shelters, with support of course, to stimulate the local economy and maintain dignity amongst the people.
3. Storm shelters
Areas that are highly susceptible to tornadoes should have storm shelters built into their surroundings. Storm shelters came into existence around the same time as the fallout shelter- when military threats had the US government encouraging its people to start building underground. Strom shelters are moulded concrete structures buried in the ground. Safe rooms are constructed of steel panels or reinforced concrete, while the doors are usually made of fibreglass, aluminium, steel-plated plywood or steel.
4. Classroom shelters
The three types of shelters listed above are all used in disastrous situations like war or tornadoes. There are of course times when shelters are required for less extreme circumstances such as drizzling rain or bright sunshine. In these instances it’s nice to have a shelter to cover us while we wait for the bus or enjoy time outdoors. Many schools have set up outdoor classrooms where students can learn and convene outside. The shelter over their heads protects them from the harmful effects of the sun or the rain.
We might not all require any of the first three, but shelter from the sun is critical. The most important thing is to stay safe.